Posts tagged Process Studies

Open and Relational Theologies Bibliography



Compiled by Thomas Oord.  Below are titles of books, articles, essays, and dissertations pertaining to “relational theology.” The list includes works on open theism, process theology, and others that are either for or against a relational understanding of God. The list is limited to materials published about a decade prior to 2002.



Basinger, David. The Case for Freewill Theism: A Philosophical Assessment. Downers Grove,      IL: IVP, 1996.

________. “Practical Implications.” In The Openness of God. Pinnock, et. al. InterVarsity Press, 1994.

________. “Can a Christian Justifiably Deny God’s Exhaustive Knowledge of the Future?”          Christian Scholars Review. 25 (December, 1995): 133-145.

Bauman, Whitney. “God’s Creation, God’s Created, and God’s Creating: A Process View of        Eschatology,” in the CTNS Bulletin, vol 21, no 4 (Fall 2001): 12-17.

Beckwith, Francis. “Limited Omniscience and the Test for a Prophet: A Brief Philosophical         Analysis.” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society. 36 no. 3 (Sept. 1993): 357-62.

Beilby, James and Eddy, Paul. Eds. Divine Foreknowledge: Four Views. Downers Grove, IL:       IVP, 2001.

Berthrong, John H. All under Heaven: Transforming Paradigms in Confucian-Christian               Dialogue. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1994.

Berthrong, John H. Concerning Creativity: A Comparison of Chu Hsi, Whitehead, and Neville.     Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1998.

Bloesch, Donald. God the Almighty: Power, Wisdom, Holiness, Love. Christian Foundations.        Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1995.

Boyd, Gregory. God at War: The Bible and Spiritual Conflict. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity   Press, 1997.

________. God of the Possible. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2000.

­­­________. Letters From a Skeptic. Colorado Springs, Co: Chariot Victor, 1994.

________. Satan and the Problem of Evil: Constructing a Warfare Theodicy. Downers Grove,      IL: InterVarsity Press, 2001.

________. Trinity and Process: A Critical Evaluation and Reconstruction of Hartshornes Di-      polar Theism Towards a Trinitarian Metaphysics. New York: Peter Lang, 1992.

Bracken, Joseph and Marjorie Hewitt Suchocki, eds. Trinity in Process: A Relational Theology     of God. New York: Continuum, 1997.

________. The One in the Many: A Contemporary Reconstruction of the God-World          Relationship. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2001.

________. Bracken, Joseph.  “Proposals for Overcoming the Atomism Within Process-Relational            Metaphysics.”  Process Studies 23:1 (Spring 1994): 10-24.

Bray, Gerald. The Personal God. Patternoster, 1999.

Breazeale, Kathlyn A. “Don’t Blame It on the Seeds: Toward a Feminist Process Understanding of Anthropology, Sin and Sexuality.” Process Studies 22, no.2 (summer, 1993): 71-73.

_____. “Marriage After Patriarchy?: Partner Relationships and Public Religion.” In Religion in a             Pluralism Age: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Philosophical     Theology, eds. Donald A. Crosby and Charley D. Hardwick. Peter Lang Press, 2001.

_____. “Process Perspectives on Sexuality, Love and Marriage.” In Chalice Handbook on             Process Theology, eds. Jay McDaniel and Donna Bowman. Chalice Press, forthcoming.

Brummer, Vincent. The Model of Love: A Study in Philosophical Theology. New York:      Cambridge University Press, 1993.

_____Speaking of a Personal God. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

Callen, Barry L. God as Loving Grace: The Biblically Revealed Nature and Work of God.                         Nappanee, Ind.: Evangel, 1996.

________. Journey Toward Renewal: An Intellectual Biography. Nappanee, Indiana: Evangel        Publishing House, 2000.

Carson, D. A. Divine Sovereignty and Human Responsibility: Biblical Perspectives            in         Tension. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1994.

Ciocchi, David. “The Religious Adequacy of Free-will Theism,” Religious Studies 38 (2002): 45   61.

Cobb, John B. Jr. Grace and Responsibility: A Wesleyan Theology for Today. Nashville:    Abingdon, 1995.

________. The Process Perspective: Frequently Asked Questions about Process Theology. St.      Louis: Chalice Press, 2003.

________. Reclaiming the Church.  Westminster John Knox, 1997.

________. Transforming Christianity and the World. Orbis, 1999

________. Postmodernism and Public Policy: Reframing Religion, Culture, Education,      Sexuality, Class, Race, Politics, and the Economy. Albany, N.Y.: State University Press            of New York, 2001.

________. and Clark H. Pinnock eds. Searching for an Adequate God: A Dialogue between           Process and Free Will Theists. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 2000.

Coleman, Monica A.  “The World At Its Best: A Process Construction of a Wesleyan      Understanding of Entire Sanctification.” Wesleyan Theological Journal.  37.2 ( Fall    2002) 130-152.

Daniell, Anne.  “The Spiritual Body:  Incarnations of Pauline and Butlerian Embodiment Themes             for Constructive Theologizing toward the Parousia,” Journal of Feminist Studies in       Religion. 16:1  (Spring 2000): 5-22.

Dean, William. “Historical Process Theology: A Field in a Map of Thought.” Process Studies.      28:4 (Fall-Winter 1999): 244-266.

Dombrowski, Dan. Analytic Theism, Hartshorne, and the Concept of God Albany: State    University of New York Press, 1996.

________. Kazantzakis and God Albany: State University of New York Press, 1997.

________. Divine Beauty: The Aesthetics of Charles Hartshorne (Nashville: Vanderbilt     University Press, 2003).

________.Being Is Power,” American Journal of Theology & Philosophy 16 (1995): 299-314.

________. “God As Absolute and Relative,” Encounter 56 (1995).

Doud, Robert. “The Biblical Heart and Process Anthropology,” Horizons 1996 (23/2: 281 – 95).

________.  “Ereignis in Heidegger and Concrescence in Whitehead.” Existentia, 2001 (XI/1-          2: 1 – 12).

________. “A Whiteheadian Interpretation of Baudelaire’s Poetry.” Process Studies 2002            (31.2)

Durie, Robin. “Immanence and Difference:  Toward A Relational Ontology.” The Southern           Journal of Philosophy 40:2 (Summer 2002):  161-189.

Erickson, Millard. God the Father Almighty. Baker, 1998.

Erickson, Millard. What Does God Know and When Does He Know It? Grand Rapids, MI:           Zondervan, 2003.

Farley, Edward. Divine Empathy: A Theology of God. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1996.

Farmer, Ronald L. Beyond the Impasse: The Promise of a Process Hermeneutic. Macon, Ga.: Mercer University Press, 1997.

Feinberg, John. The One True God. Crossway Books, 2001.

Flint, Thomas. Divine Providence: The Molinist Account. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1998.

Ford, Lewis S., Review: Clark Pinnock, et. al. The Openness of God: A Biblical Challenge to the Traditional Understanding of God. International Journal of Philosophy of Religion 41 (February 1997): 63-65.

________. Transforming Process Theism. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press,     2000.

Frame, John.  No Other God: A Response to Open Theism. Presbyterian and Reformed, 2001.

Franklin, Stephen T. The Dying of the Sacred Light: An Essay on Religion and Culture in America. Unpublished manuscript presented at The Enlightenment in Evangelical and Process Perspectives Conference, Claremont, California, 20-22 March, 1997.

Fretheim, Terrence. The Suffering of God:  An Old Testament Perspective (Philadelphia:    Fortress, 1984).

________. Exodus (Westminster/John Knox, 1991).

________. “The Book of Genesis,” in New Interpreters Bible, vol. I, ed. L. E. Keck, et al.            (Nashville:  Abingdon, 1994).

________. First and Second Kings (Westminster/John Knox, 1999).

________. Jeremiah (Macon, GA:  Smyth and Helwys, 2002).

________. “Theological Reflections on the Wrath of God in the Old Testament.” Horizons in       Biblical Theology. 24:2 (December, 2002).

________. “Law in the Service of Life: A Dynamic Understanding of Law in Deuteronomy.” In   A God So Near:  Essays in Old Testament Theology in Honor of Patrick D. Miller     (Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2003): 183-200.

________. “Old Testament Foundations for an Environmental Theology,” in Currents in Biblical             and Theological Dialogue, ed. J. Stafford (Winnipeg: St. John’s College, Univ. of         Manitoba, 2002): 58-68.

________. “The Character of God in Jeremiah.” In Character and Scripture: Moral Formation,    Community and Biblical Interpretation, ed. W.P. Brown (Grand Rapids:  Eerdmans,     2002): 211-230.

________. “Hearing God from the Other,” Word and World. 22:3 (Summer 2002): 304-306.

________. “The Earth Story in Jeremiah 12,” in Readings from the Perspective of Earth, ed. N.    Habel (Sheffield:  Sheffield Academic Press, 2000): 96-110.

________. “God,” in Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible (2000): 510-514.

________. “Divine Judgment and the Warming of the World: An Old Testament Perspective,” in             God, Evil, and Suffering: Essays in Honor of Paul R. Sponheim, ed. T. Fretheim and C. Thompson (St. Paul, MN:  Word and World Supplement Series 4, 2000): 21-32.

________. “Christology and the Old Testament.” In Who Do You Say That I Am: Essays on         Christology, ed. M. Powell and D. Bauer (Louisville:  Westminster/John Knox, 1999):         201-215.

________. “To Say Something–About God, Evil, and Suffering.” Word and World. 19:4 (Fall      1999):  339, 346-350.

________. “Some Reflections on Brueggemann’s God,” in God in the Fray: A Tribute to Walter    Brueggemann, ed. T. Linafelt & T. Beal (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1998): 24-37.

________. “Divine Dependence upon the Human: An Old Testament Perspective.”  Ex Auditu.    13 (1997): 1-13.

________. “The God Who Acts:  An Old Testament Perspective.” Theology Today. 54:1 (April 1997): 6-18.

________. “God in Exodus.” Creative Transformation. 4/1 (Autumn 1994): 1, 3-5.

________. “Salvation in the Bible vs. Salvation in the Church.” Word and World. 13:4 (Fall          1993): 363-372.

Geisler, Norman and House, Wayne. The Battle for God. Kregel 2001.

Geisler, Norman. Creating God in the Image of Man? Bethany, 1997.

Grenz, Stanley J. The Social God and the Relational Self: A Trinitarian Theology of the Imago Dei. Westminster John Knox, 2001.

Griffin, David Ray. Religion and Scientific Naturalism: Overcoming the Conflicts. Albany: State

University of New York Press, 2000.

________. Scientific Naturalism and Christian Faith: A New Synthesis. Louisville: Westminster

John Knox Press, 2004 (forthcoming)

________. “Process Theodicy, Christology, and the Imitatio Dei,” in Jewish Theology and

            Process Thought, ed. Sandra Lubarsky and David Ray Griffin (Albany: State

University of New York Press, 1996), 95-125.

________. “A Naturalistic Trinity,” Trinity in Process: A Relational Theology of God, ed. Bracken Joseph A. and Marjorie Hewitt Suchocki (New York: Continuum, 1997), 23-40.

________. “Reconstructive Theology,” The Cambridge Companion to Postmodern Theology, ed.

Kevin J. Vanhoozer (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 92-108.

________. “Panentheism: A Postmodern Revelation,” In Whom We Live and Move and Have

            Our Being: Reflections on Panentheism for a Scientific Age, ed. Philip Clayton and

Arthur Peacocke (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2003).

________. “Liberal But Not Modern: Overcoming the Liberal-Conservative Antitheses.” Lexington Theological Quarterly. 28 no. 3 (Fall 1993): 201-222.

________. “Process Theology and the Christian Good News: A Response to Classical Free Will Theism.” Searching for an Adequate God: A Dialogue between Process and Free Will Theists. John B. Cobb, Jr., and Clark H. Pinnock, eds. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 2000.

________. Reenchantment Without Supernaturalism: A Process Philosophy of Religion. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001.

Hallman, Joseph M. The Descent of God: Divine Suffering in History and Theology.          Minneapolis: Fortress, 1991.

Hardy, Douglas S. “A Winnicottian Redescription of Christian Spiritual Direction Relationships:             Illustrating the Potential Contribution of Psychology of Religion to Christian Spiritual            Practice,” Journal of Psychology and Theology. 28/4 (2000):251-263.

___________. “A Response to Haynes,” Journal of Psychology and Theology. 28/4 (2000): 268- 269.

Hasker, William. “An Adequate God.” Searching for An Adequate God. John B. Cobb, Jr. and      Clark H. Pinnock, eds. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 2000.

________. Providence, Evil, and the Openness of God. London: Routledge, forthcoming 2004.

________.”Is Free-Will Theism Religiously Inadequate?  A Reply to Ciocchi,” Religious Studies, forthcoming.

________. “The Antinomies of Divine Providence,” Philosophia Christi, 4:2 (2002): 361-75.

________. “Counterfactuals and Evil: A Reply to Geivett,” Philosophia Christi, forthcoming.

________. “The God Who Takes Risks,” in Michael Peterson, ed., ContemporaryDebates in        Philosophy of Religion, Oxford: Blackwell, forthcoming 2003.

________. “Response to Helm,” in Michael Peterson, ed., Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Religion, Oxford: Blackwell, forthcoming 2002.

________. “The Problem of Evil in Process Theism and Classical Free Will Theism,” Process       Studies 29:2 (Fall/Winter 2000): 194-208.

________. “‘Bitten to Death by Ducks’: A Reply to Griffin,” Process Studies 29:2 (Fall/Winter 2000): 227-32.

________. “In Response to David Ray Griffin,” in Searching for an Adequate God, 39-52.

________. “The Openness of God,” Christian Scholars Review 28:1 (Fall 1998): 111-23.

________. “Tradition, Divine Transcendence, and the Waiting Father,” Christian Scholars          Review 28:1 (Fall 1998): 134-39.

________. “Providence and Evil:  Three Theories,” Religious Studies 28 (1992): 91-105.

________. “A Philosophical Perspective.” The Openness of God: A Biblical Challenge to the Traditional Understanding of God. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1994.

Helm, Paul.  “Does God Take Risks in Governing the Universe?” in Michael Peterson ed. Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Religion. Blackwell, 2003.

Highfield, Ronald. “The Function of Divine Self-Limitation in Open Theism.” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, 45.2 (June 2002): 279-300.

Holt, Joseph. Predicating Infinity of God: An Open Theist Perspective. M.A. thesis, Bethel           Seminary, St. Paul, MN, 2001.

Horton, Michael. “Hellenistic or Hebrew? Open Theism and Reformed Theological Method.” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, 45.2 (June 2002): 317-342.

Howell, Nancy. A Feminist Cosmology: Ecology, Solidarity, and Metaphysics. Humanity Books, 2000.

Huffman, Douglas and Johnson, Eric. eds. God Under Fire. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2002.

Inbody, Tyron L. The Transforming God: An Interpretation of Suffering and Evil. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1997.

Johnson, Elizabeth A. She Who Is: The Mystery of God in Feminist Theological Discourse. New York:   Crossroad, 1996.

Judd, Daniel. ed. Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in Religion. McGraw       Hill, 2002.

Keller, Catherine. From a Broken Web, Beacon Press, Boston, 1986

________.Apocalypse Now and Then, Beacon, 1996.

________. and Daniell, Anne.  Process and Difference: Between Cosmological and            Poststructuralist Postmodernisms.  Albany:  State University of New York Press, 2002.

________. Face of the Deep, Routledge, New York, 2003.

Korsmeyer, Jerry D. Evolution and Eden: Balancing Original Sin and Contemporary Science.      New York: Paulist Press, 1998.

Lamp, Jeffrey S. Review: Clark H. Pinnock, et. al. The Openness of God: A Biblical Challenge to the Traditional Understanding of God. Wesleyan Theological Journal. 31 (Spring 1996): 229-231.

Lodahl, Michael Eugene. “Creation out of Nothing? Or is Next to Nothing Enough? Thy Nature     and Thy Name is Love: Wesleyan and Process Theologies in Dialogue. Bryan P. Stone   and Thomas Jay Oord, eds. Nashville, Tenn.: Kingswood, 2001.

________. The Story of God: Wesleyan Theology and Biblical Narrative. Kansas City: Beacon Hill, 1994.

________. God of Nature and of Grace: Reading the World in a Wesleyan Way. Nashville:            Kingswood/Abingdon, 2004.

________. “‘And He Felt Compassion’:  Holiness Beyond the Bounds of Community.”   In Embodied Holiness, eds. Samuel M. Powell and Michael E. Lodahl.  Downers Grove, IL:  InterVarsity Press, 1999.

Lorenzen, Lynne F. The College Students Introduction to the Trinity. Collegeville, MN:    Liturgical Press, 1999.

Maddox, Randy L. Responsible Grace: John Wesleys Practical Theology. Nashville: Abingdon, 1994.

Master, Jonathan L. Exodus 32 as an Argument for Traditional Theism. Th.M. thesis, Capitol Bible Seminary, 2002.

McLachlan, James.  “The Mystery of Evil and Freedom: Gabriel Marcel’s Reading of Schelling’s             Of Human Freedom “ in Philosophy and Theology, 12 (2) 2000.

________.  “Fragments for a Process Theology of Mormonism” in Element: The Journal of

Mormon Philosophy.  (Forthcoming).

________.  “The Desire to be God:  The Theological Character of Sartre’s Atheology” in Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy, Winter 1998

________.  “Mythology and Freedom: Nicholas Berdyaev and the Ungrund” in Philosophy

Today, Winter 1996

________.  “The Idealist Critique of Idealism:  Bowne’s Personalism and Howison’s City of

God,” in The Personalist Forum, Winter 1998.

________. “George Holmes Howison: The Conception of God Debate and the Beginnings of

Personal Idealism” The Personalist Forum, Vol.  X no. 4 (Fall) 1995.

________.  “Persons, Creativity, and God: Some Mormon Thoughts about Process Thought” in

Mormonism and Contemporary Christian Theology, David Paulsen, ed. State University

of New York Press and Brigham Young University Press. (forthcoming)

________.  “Berdyaev’s Uses of Jacob Boehme’s Ungrund Myth.” in McLachlan, James, ed.

Philosophical and Religious Conceptions of the Person and Their Implications for

Ethical, Political, and Social Thought.  Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 2003.

Meeks, M. Douglas. God the Economist: The Doctrine of God and Political Economy.       Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1989.

Miller, Patrick D. “Prayer as Persuasion: The Rhetoric and Intention of Prayer.” Word and World           13, no. 4 (1993): 356-362.

________. They Cried to the Lord: The Form and Theology of Biblical Prayer. Minneapolis,        Fortress, 1994.

Nichols, Jason. Omniscience in the Divine Openness: A Critical Analysis of Present Knowledge     in God. M.A. thesis, Trinity International University, 1997.

Nobuharu, Tokiyuki. “God and Emptiness: Cause, Reasons, and the World’s Abyss.  Forms of   Panentheism in Religion and Nature” in: Sybille Fritsch-Oppermann, ed.  Zufall,          Notwendigkeit, Bestimmung: Der Dialog zwischen Naturwissenschaft und Religion ueber Schoepfung und Naturangesichts der Fragen von Kausalitaet und Determination,        Loccumer Protokolle 15/01, Evangelische Akademie Loccum, Germany, 2001.

________. “Portraying ‘Authentic Existence’ By the Method of Analogy: Toward Creative Uses            of the Analogy of Attribution Duorum Ad Tertium for Comparative Philosophy of        Religion.”  Bulletin of Keiwa College. 1 (February 1992): 61-83; 2 (February 1993): 127-  50: 3 (February 1994): 1-19.

________. “How Can Experience Give Rise to Religious Self-Awareness and Then to the             Topological Argument for the Existence of God Cogently? Nishida, Whitehead and          Pannenberg.” Process Thought. 6 (September 1995): 125-150.

________. “Hartshorne and Hisamatsu on Human Nature: A Study of Christian and Buddhist      Metaphysical Anthropology.”  Bulletin of Keiwa College.  5 (February 1996): 1-49.

________. “Christ As the Problem of Analogy: Concerning the Theological-Analogical      Significance of Q and the Gospel of Thomas.” Bulletin of Keiwa College.  6 (February 1997): 25-51.

________. “A New Possibility for Logos Christology Through Encounter with Buddhism: Tillich            and Takizawa Critically Considered and Compared.”  Bulletin of Keiwa College.  7     (March 1998): 91-118; 9 (March 1999): 107-137.

________. “Toward a Global Ethic of Loyalty/Fidelity/Truthfulness.”  Bulletin of Keiwa             College.  9 (February 2000): 1-27.

Olson, Roger E. “Whales and Elephants: Both God’s Creatures But Can They Meet?” Pro Ecclesia 4.2 (Spring 1995): 165-89.

Olson, Roger. “Has God Been Held Hostage by Philosophy? A forum on free- will theism, a new paradigm for understanding God.” Christianity Today, 39 (Ja 9 1995): 30-34

Oord, Thomas Jay. “The Divergence of Evangelical and Process Theologies: Is the Impasse          Insurmountable?” ARC: Journal for the McGill Faculty of Religious Studies.        Forthcoming.

________. “Divine Love” and “Theodicy.” Philosophy of Religion: Introductory Essays.   Thomas Jay Oord, ed. Kansas City, Mo.: Beacon Hill Press, 2003.

________. “Evil, Providence, and a Relational God.” Quarterly Review. 23:3 (Fall 2003): 238-      250.

________. “Boston Personalism’s Affinities and Disparities with Wesleyan Theology and           Process Philosophy,” Wesleyan Theological Journal. 37:2 (Fall 2002): 115-129.

________. Matching Theology and Piety: An Evangelical Process Theology of Love. Ph.D.            Thesis. Claremont Graduate University, 1999.

________. “Evangelical and Process Theologies.” Chalice Handbook of Theology. St. Louis,         Mo.: Chalice. Forthcoming.

________. “Divine Power and Love: An Evangelical Process Proposal.” Koinonia: The Princeton Theological Seminary Graduate Forum. X.1 (Spring 1998): 1-18.

________. “A Postmodern Wesleyan Philosophy and David Ray Griffin’s Postmodern Vision.” Wesleyan Theological Journal. 35.1 (2000): 216-44.

________. “A Process Wesleyan Theodicy: Freedom, Embodiment and the Almighty God.” Thy Nature and Thy Name is Love: Wesleyan and Process Theologies in Dialogue. Bryan P. Stone and Thomas Jay Oord, eds. Nashville, Tenn.: Kingswood, 2001.

Park, Andrew Sung. “Self-Denial for Racists and Their Victims in Japan,” in Surviving Terror:    Hope and Justice in a World of Violence (Grand Rapids: Brazos Press, 2002), edited by           Victoria Lee Erickson and Michelle Lim Jones

________. “A Theology of the Way (Tao),” in Interpretation (October 2001): 389-399.

________. The Other Side of Sin (New York: State University of New York Press, 2001), co-       editor: Susan Nelson

________. “A Theology of Transmutation,” in A Dream Unfinished, edited by Eleazar Fernandez            & Fernando Segovia. Maryknoll: Orbis, 2001.

________. “God Who Needs Our Salvation,” in The Changing Face of God, edited by Frederick W. Schmidt (Morehouse Publishing,  2000)

________. “Asian-American Theology,” in Dictionary of Third World Theologies edited by V.     Fabella and R. S. Sugirtharajah, (Orbis, 2000)

________. “Sin and Han–the Pain of a Victim,” The Living Pulpit ( October-December 1999):      22-23.

________. “Theo-Orthopraxis,” Journal of Theology 1993

________. The Wounded Heart of God: The Asian Concept of Han and the Christian Doctrine of Sin. Nashville: Abingdon, 1993.

Peters, Ted. God as Trinity: Relationality and Temporality in Divine Life. Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox, 1993.

Picirilli, Robert. “An Arminian Response to John Sanders’s The God Who Risks: A Theology of Providence.” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, 44/2 (September 2001): 467-491.

Picirilli, Robert. “Foreknowledge, Freedom, and the Future.” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, 43/2 (June 2000): 259-271.

Pinnock, Clark. Flame of Love: A Theology of the Holy Spirit. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1996.

________. Most Moved Mover: A Theology of Gods Openness. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker       Academic, 2001.

________, et. al. The Openness of God: A Biblical Challenge to the Traditional Understanding     of God. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1994.

________, and R. Brow. Unbounded Love: A Good News Theology for the 21st Century.   Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1994.

Piper, John. ed. Beyond the Bounds: Open Theism and the Undermining of Biblical Christianity.   Chicago: Crossway, 2003.

Placher, William C. Narratives of a Vulnerable God: Christ, Theology, and Scripture.        Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1994.

Polkinghorne, John, ed. The Work of Love: Creation as Kenosis. Grand Rapids, Mich.:     Eerdmans, 2001.

Pratt, Douglass.  Relational Deity: Hartshorne and Macquarrie on God. Lanham: University        Press of America, 2002.

Pyne, Robert and Spencer, Stephen. “A Critique of Free-Will Theism.”, in two parts Bibliotheca  Sacra 158 (July 2001): 259-286 and (October 2001).

Rice, Richard. “Biblical Support for a New Perspective.” The Openness of God: A Biblical Challenge to the Traditional understanding of God. Clark H. Pinnock, et at. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity, 1994.

________. “Process Theism and the Open View of God: The Crucial Difference,” in Searching     for an Adequate God: A Dialogue between Process and Free Will Theists, ed. John B.             Cobb, Jr. and Clark H. Pinnock (Eerdmans, 2000).

________. “The Openness of God: A New Level of Discusion,” Spectrum: The Journal of the      Association of Adventist Forums, Summer 2001, pp.56-63.

Robinson, Franklin Webster. Adversity, Crisis Counseling, and the Openness of God: An Evaluation of Open Theism for Pastoral Response to Victims of Violence. Doctoral dissertation,  Azusa Pacific University, 2002.

Robinson, Michael. “Why Divine Foreknowledge?” Religious Studies 36: 251-275.

Roy, Steven. “How Much Does God Foreknow? An Evangelical Assessment of the Doctrine of   the Extent of the Foreknowledge of God in Light of the Teaching of Open Theism,”    Trinity International University (2000).

Sanders, John. The God Who Risks: A Theology of Providence. Downers Grove, IL: IVP, 1998.

________. With Chris Hall, Does God have a Future? A Debate on Divine Providence. Grand      Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2003.

________. “Historical Considerations” and “Introduction” in The Openness of God: A Biblical     Challenge to the Traditional Understanding of God. Downers Grove, IL:  IVP, 1994.

________. “Why Simple Foreknowledge Offers No More Providential Control than the    Openness of God,” Faith and Philosophy 14, no. 1 (Jan. 1997): 26-40.

________. “Is Open Theism a Radical Revision or Miniscule Modification of Arminianism?”       Wesleyan Theological Journal (Fall 2003).

________. “The Assurance of Things to Come” in Looking to the Future, ed. David Baker,           Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 2001.

________. “On Heffalumps and Heresies: Responses to Accusations Against Open Theism”       Journal of Biblical Studies 2, no. 1 (Spring 2002): 1-44

________. “Be Wary of Ware: A Reply to Bruce Ware” Journal of the Evangelical Theological    Society (June 2002): 221-231.

________. “A Tale of Two Providences.”  Ashland Theological Journal 33 (2001): 41-55.

________. With Chris Hall, “Does God know your Next Move?” Christianity Today, May 21,    2001,  pp. 38-45 and June 7, 2001, pp. 50-56.

________. “Truth at Risk,” Christianity Today, April 23, 2001, p. 103.

________. “Theological Lawbreaker?” Books and Culture (January, 2000) pp.10-11. Reprinted in Daniel Judd, ed. Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in Religion. McGraw-Hill, 2002.

Sarot, Marcel. “Omnipotence and Self-Limitation.” Eds. Gijsbert van den Brink et. al. Christian Faith and Philosophical Theology: Essays in Honour of Vincent Brümmer. Kampen, Netherlands: Kok Pharos, 1992.

Schreiner, Thomas and Ware, Bruce. eds. The Grace of God, the Bondage of the Will,  Baker,         1999.

Sponheim, Paul R. Faith and the Other: A Relational Theology. Minneapolis:                     Fortress, 1993.

Stone, Bryan P. and Thomas Jay Oord, eds. Thy Nature and Thy Name is Love: Wesleyan and     Process Theologies in Dialogue. Nashville, Tenn.: Kingswood, 2001.

Stratton, S. P. “Selfhood, Attachment, and Agency: Love and the Trinitarian Concept of   Personhood.” The Loss of Self in a Postmodern Therapeutic Culture. Paul P. Vitz, ed.        Forthcoming.

________. “Trinity, Attachment, and Love.” Catalyst.  29:4 (2003): 1-3.

Sturm, Douglas, ed.  Belonging Together: Faith and Politics in a Relational World.  Claremont,     CA:  P&F Press, 2003.

________.  Solidarity and Suffering:  Towards a Politics of Relationality. Albany:  State    University of New York Press, 1998.

Suchocki, Marjorie Hewitt. The Fall to Violence: Original Sin in Relational Theology. New           York: Continuum, 1994.

________. In Gods Presence: Theological Reflections on Prayer. St. Louis: Chalice, 1996.

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The Problem of Evil in Process Theism and Classical Free Will Theism


This article was taken by permission from Process Studies, “The Problem of Evil in Process Theism and Classical Freewill Theism,” Vol. 29, Number 2, Fall-Winter, 2000: pp. 194-208.

By William Hasker

No topic in the philosophy of religion seems to be so universally engaging as the problem of evil. This problem can be counted on to hold the attention of practically any audience, regardless of their degree of philosophical sophistication. During the past several decades there has probably been more writing on the problem of evil than on all of the theistic proofs put together, and the flood shows no sign of abating.

This problem is generally regarded as the most powerful weapon wielded by atheists in their attacks on theistic belief. But it also comes into play in the internecine controversies among theists, where different conceptions of God are judged acceptable or otherwise in no small part because of their ability (or lack thereof) to provide a satisfactory solution for the problem of evil. In particular, this is true of the debate between process theists and traditional or “classical” theists. It would be no exaggeration to say that many process theists regard the phenomena of evil as providing the decisive reason why traditional theism should be rejected and their view preferred in its place. Many traditional theists would agree that process theism enjoys a certain advantage at this point, while holding that other benefits of traditional theism are more than sufficient to outweigh the advantage of process theism with respect to the problem of evil.

I have come to see, however, that there is one version of traditional theism that is very much on a par with process theism in its treatment of the problem of evil. The version in question has been described by David Griffin as “classical free will theism”; its adherents usually refer to it as the “open view” of God, or simply as “free will theism.”  1

In what follows I shall begin by briefly characterizing the two views in question; then I shall proceed to examine their respective implications for the problem of evil. For the process approach I shall be relying mainly on the writings of David Ray Griffin, probably the best exponent of the process view of this topic. It is by no means my intention to provide a complete theodicy; but I will be giving special attention to those aspects of the problem where the two types of theism might seem to show major differences.
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