Bibliography on Open Theism

Bibliography on Open Theism by John Sanders (last updated 4/2013)

This bibliography is arranged in five categories: (1) multi-views works, (2) works supporting open theism, (3) works engaging open theism, (4) works against open theism, and (5) doctoral dissertations and masters theses engaging open theism.

See also:

  •   The bibliography compiled by Thomas Oord on this website.
  •   The “History of Open Theism” on this website.
  •   Taylor, Jusin. “A Bibliography on Open Theism.” Eds with John Piper, Beyondthe Bounds: Open Theism and the Undermining of Biblical Christianity. Chicago:Crossway, 2003: 385-400.
  •   Swanson, Dennis M “Bibliography of works on open theism”. Master’s SeminaryJournal, 12 no 2 Fall 2001, p 223-229.
  1. Multi-views books:
    •   Perspectives on the Doctrine of God: 4 Views, edited by Bruce Ware(Broadman & Holman, 2008), includes a defense of open theism by Sanders, a defense of the traditional Arminian view by Roger Olson, a “classical Calvinist perspective” by Paul Helm and a “modified Calvinist perspective” by Bruce Ware.
    •   Divine Foreknowledge: Four Views ed. James Beilby and Paul Eddy (IVP, 2001). Contains Boyd on the open view, David Hunt for a modified simple foreknowledge view, William Lane Craig for middle knowledge, and Paul Helm for theological determinism.
    •   God and Time: Four Views ed. Gregory Ganssle (IVP, 2001). Wolterstorff defends a temporal conception of God, Helm the atemporal view, while Padgett and Craig affirm divine temporality since creation.
    •   Predestination and Free Will: Four Views, ed. David Basinger and Randall Basinger (IVP, 1986) contains Pinnock on open theism.
  2. Works supporting open theism:

Archer, Kenneth. “Open Theism View: Prayer Changes Things.” The Pneuma Review 5.2 (Spring 2002): 32-53.

_________. “How Much Does God Control? Open View Response to the Arminian View,” The Pneuma Review 1/1(Winter 2004): 60-64;

Baker, Vaughn. Evangelism and the Openness of God: The Implications of Relational Theism for Evangelism and Missions (Pickwick, 2013).
Barholomew, D. J. God of Chance (London: SCM, 1984), chap. 7
Basinger, David. The Case for Freewill Theism: A Philosophical Assessment. Downers

Grove, IL: IVP, 1996.
________. ‘Can an Evangelical Christian Justifiably Deny God’s Exhaustive

Knowledge of the Future?’ Christian Scholar’s Review 25/2 (1995): 135-145. ________. ‘Divine Control and Human Freedom: Is Middle Knowledge the Answer?’

Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 36/1 (1993): 55-64.
________. ‘Divine Omniscience and the Soteriological Problem of Evil: Is the Type of

Knowledge God Possesses Relevant?’ Religious Studies 18/1 (1992): 1-18. Borgman, Paul. Genesis: The Story We Haven’t Heard. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity

Press, 2001.
Boyd, Gregory. God of the Possible. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2000.
________. “Two ancient (and modern) motivations for ascribing exhaustively definite foreknowledge to God: a historic overview and critical assessment.” Religious Studies 46 no 1 Mr 2010, p 41-59.
________. Satan and the Problem of Evil: Constructing a Trinitarian Warfare

Theodicy. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2001.
________. God At War: The Bible and Spiritual Conflict. Downers Grove: IVP, 1997. ________. Is God to Blame? IVP 2003
_________. Trinity and Process: A Critical Evaluation and Reconstruction of

Hartshorne’s Di-Polar Theism Towards a Trinitarian Metaphysics. American University Studies Series VII, Theology and Religion vol. 19. New York: Peter Lang, 1992.

_________. (2001) “The Open-Theist View.” James Beilby and Paul Eddy eds. Divine Foreknowledge: Four Views. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press.
Boyd, with Alan Rhoda,and Thomas Belt “Open Theism, Omniscience, and the Nature of the Future” Faith and Philosophy, 23(4), 432-459, October 2006.

Brents, T. W. The Gospel Plan of Salvation. 12th Edition. Nashville: Gospel Advocate, 1928 [1st Edition, 1874].

Brümmer, Vincent. Speaking of a Personal God: An Essay in Philosophical Theology. Cambridge: University Press, 1992.

________. What Are We Doing When We Pray? A Philosophical Investigation. Revised edition, Ashgate, 2008.

Callen, Barry. Discerning the Divine :God in Christian Theology, (Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 2004

Carasik, Michael. “The Limits of Omniscience.” Journal of Biblical Literature 119.2 (summer 2000): 221-232

Clayton, Philip. “Kenotic Trinitarian Panentheism,” Dialogue, 44/3 (2005). Cobb, John B. Jr., and Clark H. Pinnock, eds., Searching for an Adequate God: A

Dialogue Between Process and Free Will Theists, William B. Eerdmans, 2000 Culp, John. “From Criticism to Mutual Transformation? The Dialogue Between Process and Evangelical Theologies.” Process Studies, pp. 132-146, Vol. 30, Number 1, Spring- Summer, 2001
Dorner, Isaac. Divine Immutability: A Critical Reconsideration, Robert Williams and

Claude Welch trans. (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1994), pp. 149-153
Ellis, Rober. Answering God: Towards A Theology of Intercession. Paternoster, 2005 Elseth, H. Roy. Did God Know? A Study of the Nature of God. St Paul: Calvary United

Church, 1977.
Ellington, Scott. “Who Shall Lead them Out? An Exploration of God’s Openness in Exodus 32:7-14.” Journal of Pentecostal Theology, 14/1 (2005): 41-60.
Fiddes, Paul S. The Creative Suffering of God. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988.
Fretheim, Terence. The Book of Genesis. The New Interpreter’s Bible. Nashville,TN:

Abingdon, 1994.

________. “Creator, Creature, and Co-Creation in Genesis 1-2.” Word and World. Supplement 1 (1992): 11-20.

________.”Divine Foreknowledge, Divine Constancy, and the Rejection of Saul’s Kingship.” Catholic Biblical Quarterly. 47, no. 4 (Oct. 1985): 595-602.

________. Exodus. Interpretation. Louisville: John Knox, 1991.
________. God and Violence in the Old Testament,” Word & World 24/1 (Winter 2004): 18-28.
________. “Prayer in the Old Testament: Creating Space in the World for God.” Ed. Paul

Sponheim. A Primer on Prayer. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1988.
________. “The Repentance of God: A Key to Evaluating Old Testament God-Talk.”

Horizons in Biblical Theology 10, no. 1 (June 1988): 47-70.
________. “The Repentance of God: A Study of Jeremiah 18:7-10. Hebrew Annual Review

11 (1987): 81-92.
________. “Suffering God and Sovereign God in Exodus: A Collision of Images.”

Horizons in Biblical Theology 11 no. 2 (Dec. 1989): 31-56.
________. The Suffering of God: An Old Testament Perspective. Overtures to Biblical

Theology. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1984.
________. First and Second Kings, Westminster John Knox, 1999.
Geach, Peter. Providence and Evil, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977 Goetz, James. Conditional Futurism: New Perspective of End-Time Prophecy. Wifp n

Stock 2012. Argues that all biblical covenants and predictive prophecies conditional. Does not discuss the open theism debate but is compatible with openness.

Goldingay, John. Old Testament Theology, vol. 1 (Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 2003)

Gould, James B. “Bonhoeffer and Open Theism.” Philosophy and Theology: Marquette University Quarterly, 15/ 1, pp. 57-91, 2003

Gregersen, Niels Henrik. “Faith in a World of Risks: A Trinitarian Theology of Risk- Taking.” Eds. Else Pedersen, Lam Holger and Peter Lodberg, For all People: Global Theologies in Context: Essays in honor of Viggo Morterson (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 2002): 214-233.

Harvey, Sharron. Open Theism and Environmental Responsibilities: A Promotion of Environmental Ethics. (Original publication 2007) AV Akademikerverlag, 2012.

Hasker, William. Providence, Evil, and the Openness of God, London: Routledge, 2004. _________. God, Time, and Knowledge, Cornell Studies in the Philosophy of Religion.

Cornell University Press, 1989.
_________. The Openness of God: A Biblical Challenge to the Traditional

Understanding of God, with Clark Pinnock, Richard Rice, John Sanders, and

David Basinger, Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 1994. _________. “Is Free-Will Theism Religiously Inadequate? A Reply to Ciocchi,”

Religious Studies, .
__________.“The Antinomies of Divine Providence,” Philosophia Christi, 4:2 (2002),

pp. 361-75.
__________.“Counterfactuals and Evil: A Reply to Geivett,” Philosophia Christi, . __________. “The God Who Takes Risks,” in Michael Peterson, ed., Contemporary

Debates in Philosophy of Religion, Oxford: Blackwell, 2003.

_________.“Response to Helm,” in Michael Peterson, ed., Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Religion, Oxford: Blackwell, 2002.

_________. “The End of Human Life: Buddhist, Process, and Open Theist Perspectives.” Journal of Chinese Philosophy 32:2 (June 2005).

_________. “The Problem of Evil in Process Theism and Classical Free Will Theism,” Process Studies 29:2 (Fall/Winter 2000), pp. 194-208.

__________. “The Foreknowledge Condundrum.” International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 50, Numbers 1-3 ( December 2001 ): 97 – 114

___________. “Bitten to Death by Ducks’: A Reply to Griffin,” Process Studies 29:2 (Fall/Winter 2000), pp. 227-32.

___________. “An Adequate God,” in John B. Cobb, Jr., and Clark H. Pinnock, eds.,

Searching for an Adequate God: A Dialogue Between Process and Free Will

Theists, Grand Rapids, Mich.: William B. Eerdmans, 2000, pp. 215-45 __________.“In Response to David Ray Griffin,” in Searching for an Adequate God, pp.

__________.“The Openness of God,” Christian Scholar’s Review 28:1 (Fall 1998), pp.

__________. “Tradition, Divine Transcendence, and the Waiting Father,” Christian

Scholar’s Review 28:1 (Fall 1998), pp. 134-39.
_________. “Providence and Evil: Three Theories,” Religious Studies 28 (1992), pp. 91-

__________. The Triumph of God Over Evil: Theodicy for a World of Suffering.

Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 2008.
_________. “Why Simple Foreknowledge is Still Useless,” Journal of the Evangelical

Theological Society, 52/3 (September, 2009): 537-544.
Hasker, William, Thomas Oord, and Dean Zimmerman eds. God in an Open Universe:

Science, Metaphysics, and Open Theism (Pickwick, 2011).
Hayes, Joel S. The Foreknowledge of God; Or, The Omniscience of God Consistent with

His Own Holiness and Man’s Free Agency. Nashville: Publishing House of the

M[ethodist] E[piscopal] Church, South, 1890.
Hempelmann, Heinzpeter. Wir haben den Horizont weggewischt Die Herausforderung:

Postmoderner Wahrheitspluralismus und christliches Wahrheitszeugnis

(Wuppertal 2008).
________. Unaufhebbare Subjektivität Gottes. Probleme einer Lehre vom concursus

divinus, dargestellt anhand von Karl Barths “Kirchlicher Dogmatik”, (Wuppertal

Kapitan, Tomis. ‘Acting and the Open Future: A Brief Reply to David Hunt.’ Religious

Studies 33/3 (1997): 287-292.
_______. ‘Agency and Omniscience.’ Religious Studies 27/1 (1991): 105-120. Knight, Gordon. “Universalism for Open Theists.” Religious Studies: An International

Journal for the Philosophy of Religion, 42(2), 213-223. 11 p. June 2006 Krump, David. Knocking on Heaven’s Door: A New Testament Theology of Petionary

Prayer (Eerdmans, 2006)
Lucas, J. R. The Freedom of the Will. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970.
_________. The Future: An Essay on God, Temporality, and Truth. Blackwell, 1989. McCabe, Lorenzo Dow. ‘Does God’s Foreknowledge Embrace All Future Futuritions?’

Western Christian Advocate [Cincinnati], 23 May 1894: (Photocopy in Personal

Library Collection of Gordon C. Olson.)
_________.‘Prescience of Future Contingencies Impossible.’ Methodist Review

(September 1892): 760-773.
_________. Divine Nescience of Future Contingencies a Necessity, Being an

Introduction to ‘The Foreknowledge of God and Cognate Themes’. New York:

Phillips and Hunt, 1882.
_________. The Foreknowledge of God and Cognate Themes in Theology and

Philosophy. Cincinnati: Cranston and Stowe, 1887 [original copyright 1878]. Moberly, R. W. L. “God is Not a Human That He Should Reptent: Numbers 23:19 and 1

Samuel 15:29,” in eds. Tod Linafelt and Timothy F. Beal, God in the Fray: A

Tribute to Walter Brueggemann (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1998), pp. 112-123. Nichols, Jason. “Openness and Inerrancy: Can They be Compatible?” JETS 45/4 (Dec.

2002) 629-649.
Olson, Gordon. The Foreknowledge of God and The Omniscience of the Godhead

(Arlington Heights, IL: The Bible Research Corporation
Oord, Thomas Jay. “The Divergence of Evangelical and Process Theologies: Is the

Impasse Insurmountable?” ARC: Journal for the McGill Faculty of Religious

Studies, 51, 2003: 99-120.
_________. The Nature of Love: A Theology (Chalice, 2010)
Oord, Thomas Jay editor, Creation Made Free: Open Theology Engaging Science

(Pickwick, 2009).
Paulsen, David. “The God of Abraham, Isaac and (William) James.” The Journal of

Speculative Philosophy 13.2 (1999) 114-146
Pinnock, Clark H. and Cobb, John B. Jr., eds., Searching for an Adequate God: A

Dialogue Between Process and Free Will Theists, William B. Eerdmans, 2000 _________. ‘Open Theism: “What is this? A new teaching? – and with authority! (M[ar]k 1:27).’ University of Calgary, 03 February 2003. eism.pdf
_________. ‘There Is Room for Us: A Reply to Bruce Ware.’ Journal of the Evangelical

Theological Society 45/2 (June 2002): 213-219.
_________. Most Moved Mover: A Theology of God’s Openness. Grand Rapids: Baker

Academic, 2001.
_________. ‘Divine Relationality: A Pentecostal Contribution to the Doctrine of God’

Journal of Pentecostal Theology 16 (2000):3-26.
_________. ‘Between Classical and Process Theism.’ In Process Theology, ed by Ronald

[H.] Nash (309-327). Grand Rapids, Baker, 1987.
Pinnock, Clark and David Paulsen, “Open and Relational Theology: An Evangelical

Dialogue with a Latter-day Saint.” BYU Studies 48, no. 2 (2009): 50-110. Polkinghorne, John. Ed. The Work of Love: Creation as Kenosis. Grand Rapids, MI:

Eerdmans, 2001.
________. Science and Creation (Boston: Shambala, 1988)
_________. Science and the Trinity: The Christian Encounter with Realilty (New Haven:

Yale University Press, 2004
Pratney, Winkey. The Nature and Character of God (Minneapolis: Bethany House, 1998

Prior A. N. “The Formalities of Omniscience,” Philosophy 32 (1962), pp. 119-29
Purtill, Richard “Foreknowledge and Fatalism” Religious Studies 10 (1974): 319. _______. “Fatalism and the Omnitemporality of Truth,” Faith and Philosophy 5 (1988), pp.

Putt, Keith. “Risking Love and the Divine ‘Perhaps’: Postmodern Poetics of a Vulnerable

God.” Perspectives in Religious Studies 34.2 (2007): 193-214. (compares and

contrasts Caputo, Kearney, and open theism).
Rice, Richard. The Openness of God: The Relationship of Divine Foreknowledge and

Human Free Will. Nashville: Review and Herald Publishing Assoc, 1980. Reimer, David J. “An Overlooked Term in Old Testament Theology—Perhaps,” eds. A.

D. H. Mayes and R. B. Salters, Covenant and Context: Essays in Honour of E. W.

Nicholson (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003),
Rhoda, Alan. [Most of his work is available at: ________. “The Fivefold Openness of the Future.” In William Hasker, Thomas Oord,

and Dean Zimmerman eds. God in an Open Universe: Science, Metaphysics, and

Open Theism (Pickwick, 2011).
_________. “Gratuitous Evil and Divine Providence,” Religious Studies, 46(3), 281-302,

September 2010.

________. “Probability, Truth, and the Openness of the Future: A Reply to Pruss.” Faith and Philosophy, 27(2), 197-204, 8 p. April 2010.

________. “Presentism, Truthmakers, and God.” Pacific Philosophical Quarterly, 90(1), 41-62, March 2009.

_______. Beyond the Chessmaster Analogy: Game Theory and Divine Providence, in Thomas Jay Oord (ed.), Creation Made Free: Open Theology Engaging Science (Eugene, OR: Pickwick Publications, 2009).

________. “Generic Open Theism and Some Varieties Thereof,” Religious Studies, 44.2 (May, 2008).

_________. “The Philosophical Case for Open Theism.” Philosophia, 35(3-4), 301-311, September-December 2007.

________. Open Theism, Omnisciece and the nature of the Future. Faith and Philosophy 23 (2006): 432–459.

Rhoda, Alan Greg Boyd and Thomas Belt “Open Theism, Omniscience, and the Nature of the Future” Faith and Philosophy, (2007)

Thomas Renz, “Proclaming the Future: History and Theology in Prophecies Against Tyre,” Tyndale Bulletin 51 (2000): 17-58

Saia, Michael R. Does God Know the Future? A Biblical Investigation of Foreknowledge and Free Will. Fairfax, VA Xulon Press, 2002.

Sanders, John. “Open Theism.” Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy Online, 2013. _________. “Divine Reciprocity and Epistemic Openness in Clark Pinnock’s Theology,”

The Other Journal: the Church and Postmodernity (January 2012). _________.“Open Theistic Perspectives—The Freedom of Creation” in Ernst Conradie

ed., Creation and Salvation: Essays on Recent Theological Movements. LIT

Verlag, Berlin, 2012.
_________. “Open Creation and the Redemption of the Environment,” Wesleyan

Theological Journal, Spring 2012.
_________. “The Eternal Now and Theological Suicide: A Reply to Laurence Wood,”

Wesleyan Theological Journal 45.2 (Fall, 2010): 67-81.
_________. “Theological Muscle-Flexing: How Human Embodiment Shapes Discourse

About God,” in Thomas Jay Oord ed., Creation Made Free: Open Theology

Engaging Science (Pickwick Publications, 2009).
_________. “Divine Providence and the Openness of God” in Bruce Ware ed.,

Perspectives on the Doctrine of God: 4 Views. Broadman & Holman. Nashville,

_________. “Divine Suffering in Open Theism” in D. Steven Long ed., The Sovereignty

of God Debate (Wipf and Stock Publishing, 2008).
_________The God Who Risks: A Theology of Providence. Revised edition, IVP, 2007. _________. “An Introduction to Open Theism,” Reformed Review, Vol. 60, no. 2 (Spring

2007). The issue includes three articles responding to my article.

_________. “No Way to Settle the Matter: the Criteria We Use to Develop Different Models of God.” in And God saw that it was good: Essays on Creation and God in Honor of Terence E. Fretheim, ed. Fred Gaiser, (forthcoming Word and World supplement, January 2006).

_________. “Response to the Stone Campbell Movement and Open Theism,” in Evangelicalism and the Stone-Campbell Movement, Vol. 2, ed. William Baker (Abilene Christian University Press, 2006).

_________With Chris Hall, Does God have a Future? A Debate on Divine Providence. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2003.

_________. “On Heffalumps and Heresies: Responses to Accusations Against Open Theism” Journal of Biblical Studies 2, no. 1 (Spring 2002): 1-44.

__________”Historical Considerations” and “Introduction” in The Openness of God: A Biblical Challenge to the Traditional Understanding of God. IVP, 1994. _________“On Reducing God to Human Proportions” in Semper Reformandum: Studies

in Honour of Clark Pinnock, eds. Anthony Cross and Stanley Porter (Paternoster,

U.K. and Eerdmans, U.S. 2003).
_________ “Why Simple Foreknowledge Offers No More Providential Control than the

Openness of God,” Faith and Philosophy 14, no. 1 (Jan. 1997): 26-40. __________.“Is Open Theism a Radical Revision or Miniscule Modification of

Arminianism?” Wesleyan Theological Journal (Fall 2003).
__________.“The Assurance of Things to Come” in Looking to the Future, ed. David

Baker, Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 2001.
_________. “On Heffalumps and Heresies: Responses to Accusations Against Open

Theism” Journal of Biblical Studies 2, no. 1 (Spring 2002): 1-44 Online journal. __________.“Be Wary of Ware: A Reply to Bruce Ware” Journal of the Evangelical

Theological Society (June 2002): 221-231.
_________. “A Tale of Two Providences.” Ashland Theological Journal 33 (2001): 41-

_________. With Chris Hall, “Does God know your Next Move?” Christianity Today,

May 21, 2001, pp. 38-45 and June 7, 2001, pp. 50-56.
_________. “Truth at Risk,” Christianity Today, April 23, 2001, p. 103.
_________. “Theological Lawbreaker?” Books and Culture (January, 2000) pp.10-11.

Reprinted in Daniel Judd, ed. Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial

Issues in Religion. McGraw-Hill, 2002.
Sanders with J. Aaron Simmons. “A Goldilocks God: Open Theism as a Feuerbachian

Alternative?” Element: The Journal for Mormon Philosophy and Theology

Sontag, Frederick. “Does Omnipotence Necessarily Entail Omniscience?” Journal of the

Evangelical Theological Society 34 (1991): 505-8.
Studebaker, Steven M. “The Mode of Divine Knowledge in Reformation Arminianism

and Open Theism,” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, 47.3

(September, 2004): 469-480
Swinburne, Richard. The Coherence of Theism. Revised Edition. Oxford: Clarendon

Press, 1993.
Truesdale, Al God Reconsidered: The Promise and Peril of Process Theology (Beacon

Hill, 2010).
Tuggy, Dale. “Three Roads to Open Theism,” Faith & Philosophy (2006).
Udd, Kris. “Only the Father Knows: A Response to Harold F. Carl,” Journal of Biblical

Studies []. 1.4 (Oct-Dec 2001):
________. “Prediction and Foreknowledge in Ezekiel’s Prophecy Against Tyre,” Tyndale

Bulletin 56.1 (2005): 25-41.
Van Inwagen, Peter. “What Does an Omniscient Being Know About the Future?” in Oxford

Studies in Philosophy of Religion (2008): 216-230.
_______. “The Place of Chance in a World Sustained by God.” Ed. Thomas Morris. Divine

and Human Action: Essays in the Metaphysics of Theism. (Ithaca, NY: Cornell

University Press, 1988)
Viney, Donald Wayne. “Jules Lequyer and the Openness of God.” Faith and Philosophy,

14 Ap 1997, p 212-235
_________. “The Varieties of Theism and the Openness of God: Charles Hartshorne and

Free-Will Theism.” Personalist Forum, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 199-238, Fall 1998. Wagner, C. Peter. Dominion! How Kingdom Acton can Change the World. Chosen

Books, 2008.
Ward, Keith. “Cosmos and Kenosis,” John Polkinghorne ed. The Work of Love: Creation

as Kenosis, (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 2001
_________. “The Temporality of God,” International Journal for Philosophy of Religion

50 (Dec. 2001): 153-169.
________. Religion and Creation (Oxford, 1996) pages 275-277.
White, C. Jason. “An Accommodating and Shunning Culture: Evaluating the Cultural

Context of the Evangelical Theological Society in the United States.” Scottish

Journal of Theology 65, no. 2 (2012): 192-2011.
Witham, Larry. The God Biographers: Our Changing Image of God from Job to the

Present (Lexington Press, 2010). Provides a history of the debate in

Woodruff, David. “Being and Doing in the Concept of God.” Philosophia 35 (3-4), 313-

320. September-December 2007.

_________. “Examining Problems and Assumptions: An Update on Criticisms of Open Theism.” Dialogue, 47.1 (2008): 53-63.

Woterstorff, Nicholas. “Unqualified Divine Temporality” in Gregory Ganssle ed. God & Time: Four Views (Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 2001.

Yong, Amos. ‘Divine Omniscience and Future Contingencies: Weighing the Presuppositional Issues in the Contemporary Debate.’ Evangelical Review of Theology 26/3 (July 2002):240-264.

Yerxa, Donald A. “A Meaningful Past and the Limits of History: Some Reflections Informed by the Science-and-Religion Dialogue.” Fides et Historia, 34.1 2002: 13-30.

Zimmerman, Dean. [several of his articles are available at http://fas-
_______. “Open Theism and the Metaphysics of the Space-Time Manifold”, in God in an

Open Universe: Science, Metaphysics, and Open Theism, ed. by William Hasker, Thomas Jay Oord, and Dean Zimmerman (Eugene, Oregon: Pickwick Publications, 2011), pp. 125-57

_______. “Time and Open Theism”, in Science and Religion in Dialogue, Vol. 2, ed. by Melville Stewart (Malden, Mass.: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010), pp. 791-809 _______. “God Inside Time and Before Creation,” Gregory Ganssle and David

Woodruff eds., God and Time: Essays on the Divine Nature (New York: Oxford

University Press, 2002), pp. 75-94
_________. For more of Zimmerman’s papers on God, time, and foreknowledge see:

3. Works engaging open theism:
Christianity Today, 1995, Vol. 39 Issue 1 contains reviews by Roger Olson, Doug Kelly,

Alister McGrath and Tom Oden of the book, The Openness of God.
Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 45/2 (June 2002): the entire issue. Master’s Seminary Journal, 12 no 2 Fall 2001, entire issue.
Bouma-Prediger, Celaine. “Toward a Reformed Theology of Prayer and Spiritual Direction: A Response to John Sanders. Reformed Review, vol 60, no. 2 (Spring 2007), Boyd, Gregory & Paul R Eddy. Across the spectrum: understanding issues in evangelical

theology. Baker Academic, 2002.
Cottrell, Jack. “Understanding God: God and Time” in Evangelicalism and the Stone- Campbell Movement, Vol. 2, ed. William Baker (Abilene Christian University Press, 2006).
Dorrien, Gary. The Remaking of Evangelical Theology (Westminster John Knox, 1998). Fackre, Gabriel “An evangelical megashift? The promise and peril of an `open’ view of

God.” Christian Century, 5/3/95, Vol. 112 Issue 15, p484, 4p
Keepers, Brian. “My Only Comfort in Life and in Death: A Pastoral Response to Open Theism.” Reformed Review, vol 60, no. 2 (Spring 2007),
Kurka, Robert. “Open Theism and Christian Churches (Independent)” in Evangelicalism and the Stone-Campbell Movement, Vol. 2, ed. William Baker (Abilene Christian University Press, 2006).
Robinson, Michael The Storms of Providence: Navigating the Waters of Calvinism,

Arminianism and Open Theism. (University Press of America, 2004).
Tiessen, David Alstad. “The openness model of God: an Evangelical paradigm in light of its nineteenth century Wesleyan precedent.” Didaskalia (Otterburne, Man.), 11 no

2 Spr 2000, p 77-101

Warden, Duane. “Open Theism and Churches of Christ (a cappella)” in Evangelicalism and the Stone-Campbell Movement, Vol. 2, ed. William Baker (Abilene Christian University Press, 2006).
________. “Openness of God,” Restoration Quarterly, 46 no 2 2004, p 65-78

Yerxa, Donald A. “A Meaningful Past and the Limits of History: Some Reflections Informed by the Science-and-Religion Dialogue,” Fides et Historia, 34.1 Winter/spring 2002: 13-30.

4. Works Against Open Theism:
Beckman, John C. “Quantum Mechanics, Chaos Physics and the Open View of God.”

Philosophia Christi, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 203-213.
Bloesch, Donald. God the Almighty: Power, Wisdom, Holiness, Love. (IVP, 1995)
Bray, Gerald. The Personal God. Patternoster, 1999.
Caneday, A B, “Critical comments on an open theism manifesto” Trinity Journal, ns 23

no 1 Spr 2002, p 103-107
________. “Putting God at Risk: a Critical Analysis of John Sanders’ The God Who

Risks.” 1999. Trinity Journal, ns 20 no 2 Fall 1999, p 131-163

Ciocchi, David. “The Religious Adequacy of Free-will Theism,” Religious Studies 38 (2002): 45-61.

Cole, Graham A. “The Living God: Anthropomorphic of Anthropopathic?” Reformed Theological Review, 59 no 1 Ap 2000, p 16-27.

Davis, William. “Does God Know the Future?” Modern Reformation 8/5 (September, 1999) 20-27.

Erickson, Millard. God the Father Almighty. Baker, 1998.
________. What Does God Know and When Does He Know It? Zondervan, 2003 Feinberg, John. The One True God. Crossway Books, 2001
Flint, Thomas. Divine Providence: The Molinist Account. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University

Press, 1998.
Frame, John. No Other God: A Response to Open Theism. Presbyterian and Reformed,

George, Timothy. “What God Knows.”. First Things (June-July 2003): 7-9
Geisler, Norman and House, Wayne. The Battle for God. Kregel 2001.
Geisler, Norman. Creating God in the Image of Man? Bethany, 1997.
Helm, Paul. “Does God Take Risks in Governing the Universe?” in Michael Peterson ed.

Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Religion. Blackwell, 2003. _______ The Providence of God. InterVarsity Press, 1994.
Helseth, Paul Kjoss. ‘On Divine Ambivalence: Open Theism and the Problem of

Particular Evils.’ Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 44/3 (2001):

Hesselink, I. John. “A Response to John Sanders on Providence: Your God is Too

Small.” Reformed Review, vol 60, no. 2 (Spring 2007),
Highfield, Ron. ‘The Function of Divine Self-Limitation in Open Theism: Great Wall or

Picket Fence?’ Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 45/2 (June 2002). _______. Great is the Lord (Eerdmans, 2008)
_______. “The Problem with the ‘Problem of Evil’: A Response to Gregory Boyd’s Open

Theists Solution,” ResQ 45 (2003): 175-76,
Horton, Michael. “Hellenistic or Hebrew? Open Theism and Reformed Theological

Method.” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, 45.2 (June 2002): 317-

________. “Is the New News Good News? Modern Reformation 8/5 (September,

1999) 11-19.
Huffman, Douglas and Johnson, Eric. eds. God Under Fire. Grand Rapids, MI:

Zondervan, 2002.
Hunt, David P. “The Providential Advantage of Divine Foreknowledge” in Kevin Timpe,

ed. Arguing About Religion (Routledge, 2009).
Lamerson, Samuel. “The openness of God and the historical Jesus” American

Theological Inquiry, 1 no 1 Ja 15 2008, p 25-37

MacArthur, John. Open theism’s attack on the atonement” Master’s Seminary Journal, 12 no 1 Spr 2001, p 3-13.

Master, Jonathan. “Exodus 32 as an Argument for Traditional Theism,” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 45.4 (2002), pp. 585-598.

McCormack, Bruce, “The Actuality of God: Karl Barth in Conversation with Open Theism,” in McCormack ed. Engaging the Doctrine of God (Baker, 2008).

Middelmann, Udo. The Innocence of God (Paternoster, 2007).
Mordomo, Joao.”Missiological Misgivings about the Openness of God Theology.”

Patrick Henry College, Global Journal of Classical Theology, 3.2 (Nov. 2002). Mohler, Albert. “The Eclipse of God at Century’s End” Southern Baptist Journal of

Theology, 1.1. (Spring, 1997) 6-15.
Murphy, Ganon. Consuming Glory: A Classical Defense of Divine-Human Relationality

Against Open Theism (Wipf & Stock, 2006)
Picirilli, Robert. “An Arminian Response to John Sanders’s The God Who Risks: A

Theology of Providence.” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society, 44/2

(September 2001): 467-491.
________. “Foreknowledge, Freedom, and the Future.” Journal of the Evangelical

Theological Society, 43/2 (June 2000): 259-271.
Piper, John. ed. Beyond the Bounds: Open Theism and the Undermining of Biblical

Christianity. Chicago: Crossway, 2003.
Pyne, Robert and Spencer, Stephen. “A Critique of Free-Will Theism.”, in two parts

Bibliotheca Sacra 158 (July 2001): 259-286 and (October 2001): Richards, Jay Wesley. The Untamed God: A Philosophical Exploration of Divine

Perfection, Immutability and Simplicity, IVP 2003
Robinson, Jason. “Freewill Theism: Doing Business in a Free-Market Society.” Theology

Today 62 (2006): 165-175.
Robinson, Michael. “Why Divine Foreknowledge?” Religious Studies 36: 251-275. Roy, Steven. “God as Omnicompetent Responder? Questions about the Grounds of

Eschatological Confidence in Open Theism” Looking Into the Future, ed. David

W. Baker (Baker Academic, 2001): 263-280. ______. How Much Does God Foreknow? IVP, 2006.

Stallard, Michael D. A dispensational critique of open theism’s view of prophecy” Bibliotheca sacra, 161 no 641 Ja-Mr 2004, p 27-41.

Schreiner, Thomas and Ware, Bruce. eds. The Grace of God, the Bondage of the Will, Baker, 1999.

Thompson, Matthew K. “Does God Have a Future? A Pentecostal Response to Christopher Hall’s and John Sanders’ Recent Book.” Pneuma: The Journal of the Society for Pentecostal Studies; Spring2004, Vol. 26 Issue 1, p130, 8p

Tiessen, Terrence. Providence and Prayer: How Does God Work in the World? (Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press, 2000)

Tracy, Steven. “Theodicy, Eschatology, and the Open View of God” Looking Into the Future, ed. David W. Baker (Baker Academic, 2001): 295-312.

Ware, Bruce. God’s Lesser Glory. Crossway Books, 2000.
________. “Despair amidst suffering and pain: a practical outworking of open theism’s

diminished view of God.” Southern Baptist Journal of Theology, 4 no 2 Sum

2000, p 56-75.
_______. Ware, Bruce. Their God is Too Small: Open Theism and the Undermining of

Confidence in God (crossway, 2003).
______. God’s Greater Glory (Crossway, 2004).
Webster, Loring C. The End from the Beginning; Or, Divine Prescience vrs. Divine

Nescience of Future Contingencies. Cincinnati: Cranston & Curts, 1895.
Wellum, Stephen. “Divine Sovereignty-Omniscience, Inerrancy, and Open Theism” JETS

45/2 (June 2002): 257-278.
Williams, Stephen N. “More on Open Theism” Scottish Bulletin of Evangelical Theology 22 (2004): 32-50.
_______. “What God Doesn’t Know,” Books & Culture, November/December 1999. vol.

5, no 6, p.16.
Wood, Laurence. “Divine Omniscience: Boethius or ‘Open Theism?’” Wesleyan

Theological Journal 45/2 (Fall 2010): 41-66.
________. “Does God Know the Future? Can God be Mistaken?: A Reply to Richard Swinburne.” Asbury Theological Journal 56 (Fall 2001): 5-47.
Wright, R. K. McGregor. No Place for Sovereignty., IVP, 1996.
Yuille, Steven. “How Pastoral is Open Theism? A Critique from the Writings of George

Swinnock and Steven Charnock.” Themelios 32/2 (Jan. 2007): 46-61.

5. Doctoral Dissertations and Masters Theses: Doctoral Dissertations:

  1. Park, Dong Sik. The God-World Relation Between Joseph Bracken, Phillip Clayton, and Open Theism. Claremont Graduate School, 2012.
  2. Baker, Vaughn. Evangelism and the Openness of God: The Implications of Relational Theism for Evangelism and Missions. University of South Africa, 2011.
  3. Holtzen, William Curtis. Dei Fide: A Relational Theology of the Faith of God. University of South Africa, 2007.
  1. Ham, T. C. Relational Metaphors and Omniscience in the Hebrew Bible (PhD, Dallas Theological Seminary, 2007).
  2. Holland, Richard. God and Time: Rethinking the Relationship in Light of the Incarnation of Christ (PhD, Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary, Wake Forest, 2007).
  3. Ostrom, William Bruce. Divine Sovereignty and the Religious Problem of Evil: An Evaluation of Evangelical Models (PhD, The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, 2007).
  4. Rissler, James D. Divine providence and human libertarian freedom: Reasons for incompatibility and theological alternatives. University of Notre Dame, 2006, 322 pages.
  5. Calvert, Michael. Paradox Lost: Open Theism and the Deconstruction of Divine Incomprehensibility—A Critical Analysis (PhD, Trinity Theological Seminary, 2005).
  6. Harmon, Jerry. Exodus 24.6-7: A Hermeneutical Key in the Open Theism Debate (PhD, Mid-America Baptist Theological Seminary, 2005).

10. Moore, Scott. The Problem of Prayer (PhD, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, 2006).

11. Campbell, Travis. The Beautiful Mind: A Reaffirmation and Reconstruction of the Classical Reformed Doctrines of the Divine Omniscience, Prescience, and Human Freedom. Westminster Theological Seminary (2004).

12. Gilbert, Kevin James. The rule of express terms and the limits of fellowship in the Stone-Campbell movement: T. W. Brents, a test case. The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, 2004.

13. Robinson, Franklin Webster. Adversity, crisis counseling, and the openness of God: An evaluation of open theism for pastoral response to victims of violence. Azusa Pacific University, 2002.

14. Kersey, Kent Allen The freedom of God and man: A critical analysis of the relationship between providence and anthropology in Open Theism. Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, 2002.

15. Ladd, Steven Willis Theological indicators supporting an evangelical conception of eternity: A study of God’s relation to time in light of the doctrine of creation ex nihilo. Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary, 2002.

16. Steven Roy, How Much Does God Foreknow? An Evangelical Assessment of the Doctrine of the Extent of the Foreknowledge of God in Light of the Teaching of Open Theism, Trinity International University, 2000. Now published.

17. Tae Soo Park, A Biblical Response to Open Theism: Christology in the Four Gospels. Bob Jones University 2004.

Masters Theses:

  1. Conn, Jeremy. Developing Doctrinal Criterion for Evaluating Orthodoxy andHeresy: Open Theism as a Test Case. Detroit Baptist Theological Seminary,2011.
  2. Belt, Thomas G. A Critical Evaluation of the Religious Adequacy of OpenTheism: Toward an Open Theistic Theology of Petitionary Prayer. University of Wales, 2007
  1. Manning, John. Does God Suffer? Australian College of Theology, November 2006.
  2. McLaughlin, Ryan Patrick. God of Authentic Rapport: A Tale of MeinIgenes. Ashland Theological Seminary, August 2006.
  3. Lim, Joung Bin. A Thomistic Account of Divine Providence and Human Freedom. Texas A&M University, 2005.
  4. Verhage, Kara Elizabeth. Prayer and a Partially Unsettled Future: A Theological Framework for Prayer From the Perspective of Open Theism Emphasizing Prayers of Supplication. Luther Seminary, 2004.
  5. Thompson, Matthew K., Openness and Perichoresis: An Analysis of Pentecostal Spirituality Toward a Pentecostal Doctrine of God. Saint Paul School of Theology, 2003.
  6. Nichols, Jason. Omniscience in the Divine Openness: A Critical Analysis of Present Knowledge in God. Trinity International University, 1997.
  7. Jason Brian Santos, Jean Calvin’s classical divine providence juxtaposed with John Sanders’s Risk theology and the pastoral implications of Theodicy. Wheaton College Graduate School, 2002.
  8. Pillai, Jessica D. God’s Change of Mind. Denver Seminary, 2004.
  9. Joseph Holt: Predicating Infinity of God: An Open Theist Perspective. BethelSeminary, St. Paul, MN, 2001.
  10. Craig W. Thompson. John Sanders’s Philosophy of Religious Language: anAnalysis of Divine Predication in the God Who Risks, Dallas TheologicalSeminary, 2002.
  11. Jonathan L. Master, Exodus 32 as an Argument for Traditional Theism. CapitolBible Seminary, 2002.
  12. Irwin, Ben. The Sovereignty of God and the Biblical Narrative: A Response toOpen Theism. Grand Rapids Theological Seminary, May, 2002.

15. Dana Arledge, Does Scripture teach libertarian Freedom? Grand Rapids Baptist

Seminary, 2003. News articles:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Bollag, Burton. “Can God see the future? Some evangelical scholars are taking worldly heat for suggesting that divine knowledge has its limits.” The Chronicle of Higher Education, Nov 26, 2004 v51 i14 pA11-A14.
Bollag, Burton. “Peer Review,” Chronicle of Higher Education, 2/18/2005, Vol. 51 Issue 24, pA8, 1/2p, 3c;

“One God, Hold the Omniscience,” Michael Valpy. Toronto Globe and Mail 9/3/2005. F7.

“Redfining Omniscience.” Bill Broadway; The Washington Post; Nov 8, 2003; pg. B.09

“2 Escape Expulsion by Evangelical Group” Bill Broadway. The Washington Post. Washington, D.C.: Nov 22, 2003. pg. B.09
“Process, Open Theologians Debate” Thomas Oord, Science and Theology News. 4.5 (Jan 2004), pp. 2, 32.

Smith, James. “What God Knows,” Christian Century 7/12/2005, 122.14, p30-33.

  1. “College to close out ‘open theism’ scholar.” By: Dart, John. Christian Century, 12/28/2004, Vol. 121 Issue 26, p13, 2/3p,
  2. “Open Theism Scholars Retained,” Christian Century, 12/13/2003, 120.25, p14.

10. “Evangelicals in the dock” Leithart, Peter J. First Things, 141 Mr 2004, p 9-11.

  1. “Cracks in the Ivory Tower,” Allen Guelzo. Books & Culture (Summer, 2005).
  2. “Does God know what you’re thinking now?” Richard N. Ostling, Halifax DailyNews 08-03-2003

13. “Theological society won’t oust two ‘open theists’” Adelle Banks Religion News

Service 12-05-2003

  1. “Society Keeps Open Theists,” San Antonio Express-News 11-22-2003
  2. “Evangelical theologians reject ‘open theism’” Gorski, Eric The Christian Century118.34 12-12-2001 p. 10
  3. “Theologians Divided over Free Will,” Eric Gorski, Colorado Springs Gazette11/24/2001.
  4. “How Much Control Does God Have? Ray Waddle Tennessean 01-20-2001 3B
  5. “Area Religious Colleges Wrestle With Orthodoxy.” Rebecca Green, Fort WayneJournal Gazette May 21, 2005, Page 1C.

19. “Love is the Answer,” Kevin Kilbane. Fort Wayne News Sentinel. 3/5/ 1999, 20. Open or Closed Case? Controversial theologian John Sanders on way out at

Huntington. Stan Guthrie Christianity Today, 12/22/2004
21. “Open to Healing,” Neff, David. Christianity Today, Jan2004, 48.1, p21.
22. “Closing the Door on Open Theists?” Doug Koop Christianity Today, Jan2003,

23. “Foreknowledge Debate Clouded by ‘Political Agenda.’” Neff, David.

Christianity Today 11/19/2001
24. “God at Risk” By: Zoba, Wendy Murray. Christianity Today, 03/05/2001, 45.4,

25. “Did Open Debate Help the Openness Debate? Christianity Today, 2/19/2001 26. “God vs God” Christianity Today, 2/7/2000
27. “Do Good Fences Make Good Baptists? Christianity Today, 8/8/2000

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