Academic writings on open theism.

John Sanders

The Early Church Fathers on Hellenism and Impassibility

Is Open Theism Christian Theism? – A major paper explaining the main views on divine providence and omniscience

1994-2004, an Overview of the Debate on Open Theism in Evangelicalism

Divine Relationality and Theodicy in The Shack – Presented at the American Academy of Religion in Montreal Canada, November 7, 2009

Divine Reciprocity and Epistemic Openness in Clark Pinnock’s Theology – This paper was given at a session honoring the work of Clark Pinnock at the American Academy of Religion in San Francisco, November 18, 2011.

Gregory Boyd

Motivations for Ascribing Foreknowledge to God – Two ancient (and modern) motivations for ascribing exhaustively definite foreknowledge to God: a historic overview and critical assessment. *redirects to pdf hosted at

The Hexagon of Opposition: Thinking Outside the Aristotelian Box -In this essay Gregory A. Boyd, Thomas Belt, Alan Rhoda first show how the future-tense Square of Opposition allows for the possibility of a partly indeterminate future .

God and the Future – A brief Outline of the Open View of God.

The “Open” View of the Future

William Hasker

The Openness of God – An article taken by permission from Christian Scholar’s Review 28:1 (Fall, 1998: 111-139)

The Problem of Evil in Process Theism and Classical Free Will Theism – Process Studies. Vol. 29, Number 2, Fall-Winter, 2000: pp. 194-208.

Implications of Divine Repentance For the Attributes of God

The Incompatibility of Libertarian Free Will and Divine Timelessness

Clark Pinnock

God’s Sovereignty in Today’s World – From Theology Today ; Princeton; Apr 1996

God as Most Moved Mover – From Worship Leader Magazine, Nov./Dec. 2000

Alan Rhoda

Web link to works by Dr. Alan Rhoda

David Woodruff

Examining Problems and Assumptions: An Update on Criticisms of Open Theism – From Dialog: A Journal of Theology ; Volume 47, Number 1 ; Spring 2008

Dean Zimmerman

Index of works by Dean Zimmerman, Professor of Philosophy at Rutgers University. – A wealth of resources with many works on the topic of God and time.

Christianity Today

Does God Know Your Next Move? – Does God change his mind? Will God ever change his plans in response to our prayers? If God knows it all, are we truly free? What does God know-and when does he know it? Christopher A. Hall and John Sanders debate openness theology. Copyright © 2001 by the author or Christianity Today, Inc./Christianity Today magazine. May 21, 2001, Vol. 45, No. 7, Page 38

A Letter to the Editor of Christianity Today – The March 5th 2001, Issue of Christianity Today published an interview with Royce Gruenler making some odd accusations against Open Theism. Here is a response (a form of which is to be published by CT) by John Sanders, Clark Pinnock, Greg Boyd, William Hasker, Richard Rice and David Basinger.

George M. Porter

Things That May Be Only? – Lorenzo Dow McCabe and Some Neglected Nineteenth Century Roots of Open Theism in North America

Tom Belt

Summary of Open Theism to the AOG – A paper by Tom Belt that he wrote to introduce his denomination, the Assemblies of God, to open theism.

Ron Saari

Preserving Civility and Piety Piety within the Baptist General Conference – A letter concerning the Baptist General Conference’s ongoing debate and internal strife regarding the inclusion of exhaustive foreknowledge into their statement of faith. The letter is written to BGC pastors from a BGC pastor.

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